Frequently Asked Questions References

  1. Sarwar G, McDonough FE. Evaluation of protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method for assessing protein quality of foods. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 1990;73:347-56.
  2. Nutrient values from commercial products’ nutrition facts panel and company-provided information.
  3. Heaney RP, Dowell MS, Rafferty K, Bierman J. Bioavailability of the calcium in fortified soy imitation milk, with some observations on method. Am J Clin Nutr 200;71:1166-9
  4. Messina M, Messina V. Soyfoods, soybean isoflavones, and bone health: a brief overview. J Ren Nutr 2000;10:63-8.
  5. United States Department of Agriculture. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232 Fifth Edition, 2000
  6. Zemel MB. Calcium utilization: effect of varying level and source of dietary protein. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:880-3.
  7. Zhao Y, Martin BR, Weaver CM. Calcium bioavailability of calcium carbonate fortified soymilk is equivalent to cow’s milk in young women. J Nutr. 2005 Oct;135(10):2379-82.
  8. Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: health claims; soy protein and coronary heart disease. Fed Reg Oct 26, 1999;64(206) [21 CFR Part 101].
  9. Sirtori CR, Eberini I, Arnoldi A. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of soya proteins: results of recent studies are predictable from the Anderson meta-analysis data. Br J Nutr. 2007 May;97(5):816-22.
  10. Azadbakht L, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Esmaillzadeh A, Padyab M, Hu FB, Willett WC. Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):735-41.
  11. Sacks F, Lichtenstein A, VanHorn L, et al. Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health. Circulation. 2006:113:1-12.
  12. Sacks, FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn, L, Harris, W, Kris-Etherton, P, and Winston, M for the American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Soy proteins, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: An American Heart Association Science Advisory for Professionals from the Nutrition Committee. Circulation 2006;7:1034-1044.
  13. Anderson JW, Johnstone BM, Cook-Newell ME.Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids.N Engl J Med. 1995 Aug 3;333(5):276-82.
  14. Sirtori CR, Eberini I, Arnoldi A. Hypocholesterolaemic effects of soya proteins: results of recent studies are predictable from the Anderson meta-analysis data. Br J Nutr. 2007 May;97(5):816-22.
  15. Harland JI & Haffner TA. Systematic review, meta analysis and regression of randomised controlled trials reporting an association between an intake of circa 25g soya protein per day and blood cholesterol. Submitted for publication.
  16. Azadbakht L, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Esmaillzadeh A, Padyab M, Hu FB, Willett WC. Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):735-41.
  17. Anderson RL, Wolf WJ. Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean processing. J Nutr. 1995 Mar;125(3 Suppl):581S-588S.
  18. Kennedy AR. The Bowman-Birk inhibitor from soybeans as an anticarcinogenic agent. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;68(6 Suppl):1406S-1412S.
  19. Friedman M. Lysinoalanine in food and in antimicrobial proteins. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;459:145-59.
  20. Setchell KD. Phytoestrogens: the biochemistry, physiology, and implications for human health of soy isoflavones. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:1333S-1346S.
  21. Kurzer MS. Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men. J Nutr. 2002Mar;132(3):570S-573S.
  22. The North American Menopause Society. The role of isoflavones in menopausal health:Consensus opinion of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2000; 7: 215-29.
  23. Messina MJ. Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev. 2003 Apr;61(4):117-31.
  24. Chen YM, Ho SC, Lam SS, Ho SS, Woo JL. Soy isoflavones have a favorable effect on bone loss in Chinese postmenopausal women with lower bone mass: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Oct;88(10):4740-7.
  25. Setchell KD, Lydeking-Olsen E. Dietary phytoestrogens and their effect on bone: evidence from in vitro and in vivo, human observational, and dietary intervention studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):593S-609S.
  26. Kritz-Silberstein D, Von Muhlen DV, Barrett-Connor E, Bressel MA. Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the Soy and Postmenopausal Health in Aging (SOPHIA) Study. Menopause, 2003; 103(3)196-202.
  27. Colacurci N, Chiantera A, Fornaro F, de Novellis V, Manzella D, Arciello A, Chiantera V, Improta L, Paolisso G. Effects of soy isoflavones on endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause 2005;12:299-307.
  28. Korde L FT, Wu A, et al. Adolescent and childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005;88:S149.
  29. Messina M, Ho S, Alekel DL. Skeletal benefits of soy isoflavones: a review of the clinical trial and epidemiologic data. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2004;7:649-658.
  30. Wagner JD, Schwenke DC, Greaves KA, Zhang L, Anthony MS, Blair RM, Shadoan MK, Williams JK.Soy protein with isoflavones, but not an isoflavone-rich supplement, improves arterial low-density lipoprotein metabolism and atherogenesis.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 Dec;23(12):2241-6.
  31. Greaves KA, Parks JS, Williams JK, Wagner JD.Intact dietary soy protein, but not adding an isoflavone-rich soy extract to casein, improves plasma lipids in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.J Nutr. 1999 Aug;129(8):1585-92.
  32. Trock BJ, Hilakivi-Clarke L, Clarke R. Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Nat Cancer Inst. 2006;98:459 – 71.
  33. Yan L, Spitznagel E. A meta-analysis of soyfoods and risk of breast cancer in women. Int J Cancer Prevention 2005;1:281-293.
  34. Korde L FT, Wu A, et al. Adolescent and childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005;88:S149.
  35. Wu AH, Wan P, Hankin J, Tseng CC, Yu MC, Pike MC. Adolescent and adult soy intake and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Carcinogenesi
    s.
    2002;23:1491-1496.
  36. Shu XO, Jin F, Dai Q, Wen W, Potter JD, Kushi LH, Ruan , Gao YT, Zheng W. Soyfood intake during adolescence and subsequent rish of breast cancer among Chinese women. Cancer Epidemiol Giomarkers Prev. 2001;a0:483-488.
  37. Op cit. Korde 2005.
  38. American Cancer Society. Soy and Breast Cancer. Accessed on January 3, 2007 at cancer.org/docroot/NWS/content/NWS_1_1x_Soy_and_Breast_Cancer.asp.
  39. Colacurci N, Chiantera A, Fornaro F, de Novellis V, Manzella D, Arciello A, Chiantera V, Improta L, Paolisso G. Effects of soy isoflavones on endothelial function in healthy postmenopausal women. Menopause 2005;12:299-307.
  40. Messina M. Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev 2003;61:117-131.
  41. Korde L FT, Wu A, et al. Adolescent and childhood soy intake and breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005;88:S149.
  42. Messina M, Ho S, Alekel DL. Skeletal benefits of soy isoflavones: a review of the clinical trial and epidemiologic data. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2004;7:649-658.
  43. DiSilvestro RA, Mattern C, Wood N, Devor ST. Soy protein intake by active young adult men raises plasma antioxidant capacity without altering plasma testosterone. Nutrition Research 2006; 26: 92-95.
  44. Kurzer MS. Hormonal effects of soy in premenopausal women and men. J Nutr 2002;132(3):570S-573S.
  45. Rubin S, Kalman D, Martinez M, Krieger DR. A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Pilot Trial Evaluating the Effect of Protein Source when Combined with Resistance Training on Body Composition and Sex Hormones in Adult Males, FASEB, 2005.
  46. Maskarinec G, Morimoto Y, Hebshi S, Sharma S, Franke AA, Stanczyk FZ. Serum prostate-specific antigen but not testosterone levels decrease in a randomized soy intervention among men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006; 60:1423-1429.
  47. Dillingham BL, McVeigh BL, Lampe JW, Duncan AM. Soy protein isolates of varying isoflavone content exert minor effects on serum reproductive hormones in healthy young men. Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135:584-591.
  48. Goodin S, Shen F, Shih WJ, Dave N, Kane MP, Medina P, Lambert GH, Aisner J, Gallo M, DiPaola RS. Clinical and biological activity of soy protein powder supplementation in healthy male volunteers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Apr;16(4):829-33.
  49. NTP-CERHR Expert Panel on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Soy Formula. April 2006 cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/chemicals/genistein-soy/soyformula/Soy-report-final.pdf.
  50. Gu L, House SE, et al. Metabolic phenotype of isoflavones differ among female rats, pigs, monkeys, and women. J Nutr. 2006; 136:1215-21.
  51. Badger TM, Ronis MJ, Simmen RC, Simmen FA. Soy protein isolate and protection against cancer. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Apr;24(2):146S-149S.
  52. Spector D, Anthony M, Alexander D, Arab L. Soy consumption and colorectal cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(1):1-12.
  53. Seow A, Poh WT, Teh M, Eng P, Wang YT, Tan WC, Chia KS, Yu MC, Lee HP. Diet, reproductive factors and lung cancer risk among Chinese women in Singapore: evidence for a protective effect of soy in nonsmokers. Int J Cancer. 2002 Jan 20;97(3):365-71.
  54. Zhang M, Xie X, Lee AH, Binns CW. Soy and isoflavone intake are associated with reduced risk of ovarian cancer in southeast china. Nutr Cancer. 2004;49(2):125-30.
  55. Wang. ZW, et. al. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activity by genistein is mediated via Notch-1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Cancer, 2006;118(8):1930-1936.
  56. Kushi LH, Byers T, Doyle C, Bandera EV, McCullough M, Gansler T, Andrews KS, Thun MJ, et al. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer With Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity. CA Cancer J Clin 2006 56: 254-281.
  57. Messina M, Redmond G.Effects of soy protein and soybean isoflavones on thyroid function in healthy adults and hypothyroid patients: a review of the relevant literature.Thyroid. 2006 Mar;16(3):249-58.
  58. Horn-Ross PL, Hoggatt KJ, Lee MM. Phytoestrogens and Thyroid Cancer Risk: The San Francisco Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2002; 11: 43-9.
  59. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Nutrition. Soy protein-based formulas: recommendations for use in infant feeding. Pediatrics. 1998 Jan;101(1 Pt 1):148-53.
  60. NTP-CERHR Brief on the potential human reproductive and developmental toxicity of genistein. Draft October, 2006. Accessed on January 11, 2007 at cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/chemicals/genistein-soy/genistein/Genistein_Brief.pdf.
  61. Setchell KD, Brown NM, Lydeking-Olsen E. The clinical importance of the metabolite equol-a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones. J Nutr 2002;132:3577-3584.
  62. Rowland I, Faughnan M, Hoey L, Wahala K, Williamson G, Cassidy A. Bioavailability of phyto-oestrogens. Br J Nutr 2003;89 Suppl 1:S45-58.
  63. Strom B, Schninnar R, et al. Exposure to Infant Formula in Infancy and Endocrinological and Reproductive Outcomes in Young Adulthood. JAMA, 2001: 286 (7), 807-814.
  64. Giampietro, PG, Bruno G et al. Soy Protein Formulas in Children: No Hormonal Effects in Long-term Feeding, J of Ped End & Met. 17 (2), 191-196, 2004.
  65. Bhatia J, Greer F, and the Committee on Nutrition. Use of soy protein-based formulas in infant feeding. Pediatrics. 121: 1062-1068. 2008.
  66. United States Department of Agriculture. Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Home and Garden Bulletin No. 232 Fifth Edition, 2000
  67. Birk, Y. Structure-activity relationship of several trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors from legume seeds. In: Proteinase Inhibitors (N. Fritz, H. Tschesche, J.J. Green and E. Truscheit, eds), Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 355-361, 1974.
  68. Kennedy, A.R. Anticarcinogenic activity of protease inhibitors. Overview. In: Protease Inhibitors as Cancer Chemopreventive Agents, W. Troll and A.R. Kennedy (eds), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 9-64, 1993.
  69. Kennedy, A.R. Chemopreventive agents: Protease inhibitors. Pharmacol. Ther. 78:167-209, 1998.
  70. Formanek R. Food allergies: When food becomes the enemy. FDA Consumer; July-August 2001:10-16.
  71. File SE, Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, Duffy R, Wiseman H. Cognitive improvement after 6 weeks of soy supplements in postmenopausal women is limited to frontal lobe function. Menopause. 2005 Mar;12(2):193-201.
  72. Meade S, Lane N, Ohrt T, Asthana S, Gleason C. Soyfoods Exposure Predicts Better Baseline Cognitive Function in Healthy Older Adults. Poster abstract presented at 6th International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. Chicago, Il. 10/30/05-11/2/05.
  73. Kim H, Xia H, Li L, Gewin J. Modulation of neurodegeneration markers by dietary soy in a primate model of menopause. 3rd International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. Presented 11/2/99.
  74. Rice MM, Graves AB, McCurry SM, Gibbons L, Bowen J, McCormick L, Larsen EB. Tofu consumption and cognition in older Japanese American men and women. 3rd International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. Presented 11/2/99.
  75. Duffy R, Wiseman H, File S. Dietary soya improves memory in humans. 4th International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease. Presented 11/07/01.
  76. Cook, J.D. Reddy, M.B., Burri, J., Juillerat, M.A. and Hurrell, R.F. The influence of different cereal grains on iron absorption from infant cereal foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65: 964-969, 1997.
  77. Davidsson,L. Approaches to improve iron bioavailability from complementary foods. J. Nutr. 133:1560S-1562S, 2003
  78. Hurrell,R.F.,Reddy, M.B., Juillerat,M. and Cook. J. D. Degradation of phytic acid in cereal porridges improves iron absorption by human subjects. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr.77: 1213-1219, 2003.
  79. Hurrell,R.F. Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability. J. Nutr. 133:2973S-2977S, 2003
  80. National Academy of Sciences. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Panel on Micronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and of Interpretation and Use of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. National Academies Press, Washington DC. 800 pp. 2002. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10026.html
  81. Zhou, J.R. and Erdman, J.W. Jr. Phytic acid in health and disease. Crit. Rev. Food Sci Nutr 35:495-508, 1995.
  82. Bristol-Meyers Squibb Company. What should I know about the vitamin K content of foods and Coumadin® therapy? 2001.
  83. Environmental Protection Agency. Toxicological Review of n-Hexane (CAS No. 110-54-3). November 2005. Washington, DC. Accessed on 05.14.2010 at http://www.epa.gov/ncea/iris/toxreviews/0486tr.pdf.
  84. U.S. Department of Labor. Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for n-Hexane. 05/15/2009. Accessed on 06.02.2010 at http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/n-hexane/recognition.html.
  85. Patterson KY, Bhagwat SA, Williams JR, et al. USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. https://data.nal.usda.gov/system/files/Choln02.pdf
  86. Zeisel SH, Blusztajn JK. Choline and human nutrition. ?Annu Rev Nutr 1994;14:269-96.
  87. Amenta F, Tayebati SK. Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction. Curr Med Chem 2008;15:488-98.
  88. Buchman AL, Dubin M, Jenden D, et al. Lecithin increases plasma free choline and decreases hepatic steatosis in long-term total parenteral nutrition patients. Gastroenterology 1992;102:1363-70.
  89. Buchman AL, Dubin MD, Moukarzel AA, et al. Choline deficiency: a cause of hepatic steatosis during parenteral nutrition that can be reversed with intravenous choline supplementation. Hepatology 1995;22:1399-403.
  90. Chawla RK, Wolf DC, Kutner MH, Bonkovsky HL. Choline may be an essential nutrient in malnourished patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1989;97:1514-20.
  91. Sheard NF, Tayek JA, Bistrian BR, Blackburn GL, Zeisel SH. Plasma choline concentration in humans fed parenterally. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:219-24.
  92. Caudill MA. Pre- and postnatal health: evidence of increased choline needs. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:1198-206.
  93. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. National Academy Press. 1998. pg 401-406.
  94. Awazuhara H, Kawai H, et al. Antigenicity of the proteins in soy lecithin and soy oil in soybean allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 1998; Vol. 28, Issue 12: 1559-1564.